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Factors affecting India’s Climate
India lies in the region of north easterly winds. These winds originate from the subtropical high-pressure belt of the northern hemisphere. They blow south, get deflected to the right due to the Coriolis force, and move on towards the equatorial low-pressure area. Generally, these winds carry very little moisture as they originate and blow over land. Therefore, they bring little or no rain.
The pressure and wind conditions over India are unique. During winter, there is a high-pressure area north of the Himalayas. Cold dry winds blow from this region to the low-pressure areas over the oceans to the south. In summer, a low-pressure area develops over interior Asia as well as over north-western India. This causes a complete reversal of the direction of winds during summer. Air moves from the high-pressure area over the southern Indian Ocean, in a south-easterly direction, crosses the equator, and turns right towards the low-pressure areas over the Indian subcontinent
The climate around the world is affected by many different factors that lead to different parts of the Earth experiencing differing climates. The following factors influence the India’s climate:
- Latitude: As the earth is round, sunlight does not reach everywhere equally. The temperature decreases as we move from the equator to the poles.
- Altitude: As we move from the surface of the earth to the higher altitudes, the temperature decreases.
- Pressure and wind system: The pressure and wind system of any area depend on the latitude and altitude of that place. Thus, it influences the temperature accordingly.
- Distance from the sea: Coastal regions are cooler as compared to interior regions. As the distance from the sea increases, its influence decreases and the people experience extreme weather conditions.
- Ocean currents: Cold ocean currents flowing over a region will decrease the temperature of that area whereas warm currents will increase the temperature.
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