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The imaginary sphere on the inner surface of which the celestial bodies appear to attach is called Celestial Sphere, The star nearest to the earth is Sun, The distance of sun from the earth is 5 x 108km, The time taken by a light from the sun to reach the earth is 3min, The mass of the sun is about 2 x 1030Kg, The surface temperature of sun is about 6000K, The total amount of energy radiated by the sun per second is called Solar luminosity, The solar luminosity of Sun is 9 x 1026W, The places in India where the two large telescopes are situated are Udaipur and Kodaikanal, The period of rotation of the sun is 26 days, The direction of rotation of the sun is from West to East,

The grain like pattern found on the photosphere of the sun are called Granulations, The thread like structures found on the surface of the sun are called Spicules, The short outbursts emerging from the solar surface are called Solar flares, The temperature of the region of sunspots is about 4000K, A display of streams of colored light seen in night sky in the polar regions of earth is called Aurora, The source of energy of the sun are Thermonuclear reactions, 1 light year is equal to 1016m, 1 parsec is equal to 26 light years, Stars differ in color due to difference in their temperature, The scale used to express the brightness of stars is Magnitude scale,

The magnitude of sun is -27, The magnitude of the moon is -13, The magnitude of the star Sirius is -1.4, The magnitude of the star Vega is 0, The magnitude difference of 1 is equal to the ratio of 5, The magnitude difference of 2 is equal to the ratio25, The magnitude difference of 3 is equal to the ratio 6, The magnitude difference of 4 is equal to the ratio 40, The magnitude difference of 5 is equal to the ratio 100, The value of luminosity of star depends upon the temperature and diameter of star,

The luminosity of star Sirius is 5Lo, The size of stars are determined from their luminosity and temperature, The galaxy next to the Milky way galaxy is Andromeda, The shape of the galaxy Andromeda is Spiral, The number of galaxies estimated to be present in the universe are 1011 million

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Information You Should KNOW

The stars twinkle due to reflection of light, The brightness of the stars vary due to distance of them, The period of revolution of the earth is 365 days, The period of rotation of earth is 24 hrs, The sun crosses the celestial equator 2 times in the course of a year, The biggest planet in the solar system is Jupiter, The planet nearest to the sun is Mercury, The constellation used to identify pole star is Ursa Major, The comet lies in the constellation Cassiopedia, The planet Saturn lies in the constellation Aquarious,

A month in the Indian lunar calendar system is divided into 2 Pakshas, If the half moon is visible in the Zenith in the morning it will be again visible in the evening in the zenith after 15 days, The phase of half moon is called quarter, The motion of the earth around the sun is called Annual motion, The points where the celestial equator and ecliptic meet are called Equinoxes, The imaginary circle in the sky representing the apparent path of the sun is called Ecliptic, The average distance of the planet Mercury from the sun is 39AU,

The average distance of the planet Mars from the sun is 52AU, The average distance of the planet Pluto from the sun is 81AU, The phases of moon are 4, The sun and the host of celestial objects revolving round it are together called Solar System, The total amount of energy emitted by a source in 1second is called Luminosity, The visible disc of the sun is called Photosphere , The layer of the sun lying just above the photosphere is called Chromosphere, The layer of the sun which is visible only during the total solar eclipse is called Corona,

The dark irregular patches on the surface of the sun are called Sun spots, The distance traveled by light in one year is called Light year, A system of stars comprising of hundreds or thousands of millions of stars held together by the force of gravity is called Galaxy, The branch of science that deals with the study of universe is called Cosmology, A celestial object in which the escape velocity is greater than the speed of light is called Black hole, The velocity of recession of a celestial body is proportional to its distance from the observer is called Hubble’s law,

The awesome explosion of the primordial fireball which marked the beginning of universe about 15-20 billion years ago is known as Big Bang

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